Electron Microscopy for High Resolution Imaging

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Electron microscopes come in two broad varieties: transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) and scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). Both instruments provide high-resolution imaging and 1-D and 2-D compositional information.

SEMs provide surface images and information about topography by scanning the sample with a focused beam of electrons and monitoring the commisurate secondary electron signal.  High-contrast images using backscattered primary electrons (EBSD) can provide general information about atomic mass.  An energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS) on the SEM gives elemental composition with excellent spatial resolution (~10 nm) and an information depth of ~ 5 microns. Cathodoluminescence images from electron-induced UV-visible fluorescence can provide real color data. Sample composition can be found at a point, series of points, across a line or over an area.

TEMs provide nanoscale or atomic-scale images of thin sections of a material, where high-energy electrons pass through the sample to form the image or provide crystal structure information, including phase. The narrow beam of electrons can also provide elemental information via EDS as a function of position (maps). The addition of an electron spectrometer on our TEM allows electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for measurement of atomic composition (particluarly light elements), chemical bonding, and valence and conduction band electronic properties.

  • Titan Scanning TEM

    Titan STEM with EDS, EELS, EFTEM and HAADF Detector

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    Location: MSE 158

    The FEI Titan system allows for imaging of materials with atomic resolution in both the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and the Scanning TEM (STEM) modes. Compositional analysis is available using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS).

    TEM Technique Summary:

     
    • Atomic resolution imaging of crystal lattices in TEM and STEM modes
    • Imaging of defects, precipitates and interfaces using bright- and dark-field techniques
    • Elemental Composition for Z>5
    • Elemental Sensitivity: < 1 wt.% with spatial resolution in the 10 nm range
    • Electron diffraction for structural analysis of areas with diameters > 150 nm
    • Cryo- and heating options for samples
    • Samples can be powders or materials thinned to less than 1 micron in thickness
    • Maximum sample diameter: 3 mm, maximum height: 0.25 mm
     

    TEM Features:

     
    • 80-300 kV S-Twin platform
    • STEM and TEM system with Field Emission Gun
    • Resolution: STEM: 0.16 nm; TEM: 0.19 nm
    • EDAX retractable X-ray detector (0.13 Sr collection angle)
    • Low-background Double-Tilt Specimen Holder, alpha tilt angles up to 40°
    • Cold Stage (liquid nitrogen) and Heating Stage (up to 850°C) Double-Tilt Specimen Holders
    • Titan Smart Tilt
    • Gatan Oneview camera: 4096x4096 pixels with 25.1 fps
    • HAADF STEM detector
    • Titan Compucentricity
    • Titan Free Lens Control Operating range: 0.5 to 30 kV in 0.1 kV steps
    • Low-Dose Exposure Technique

     

     

     

     

  • Themis High-Resolution Scanning TEM

    Themis HR-STEM with EDS and EELS

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    Location: Wilsdorf Hall B011 and B013

    The Themis system from Thermo Fisher Scientific allows for imaging of materials with atomic resolution in both the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and the probe-corrected Scanning TEM (STEM) modes. Compositional analyses and mapping are available using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS).

    TEM Technique Summary:

     
    • Atomic resolution imaging of crystal lattices in TEM and STEM modes
    • Imaging of defects, precipitates and interfaces using bright- and dark-field techniques
    • Elemental Composition for Z>2
    • Elemental Sensitivity: < 1 wt.% with spatial resolution in the nm range
    • Electron diffraction for structural analysis of areas with diameters > 150 nm
    • In-situ of imaging of samples during cooling and heating experiments
    • In-situ imaging of liquids and during electrochemical experiments
    • Samples can be powders or materials thinned to less than 1 micron in thickness
    • Maximum sample diameter: 3 mm, maximum height: 0.25 mm
     

    TEM Features:

     
    • 80-300 kV S-Twin platform
    • STEM and TEM system with Field Emission Gun and Gatan 966 Energy-Loss Spectrometer
    • Monochromator: Energy resolution<200 mV at 300 kV, energy resolution<30 mV at 60 kV
    • Resolution: probe-corrected STEM: 0.07 nm; TEM: 0.19 nm
    • Super X EDS system (4 silicon drift detectors)
    • Low-background Double-Tilt Specimen Holder, alpha tilt angles up to 40°
    • Cold Stage (liquid nitrogen) and Heating Stage (up to 850°C) Double-Tilt Specimen Holders
    • Rotation holder and q-slit for momentum resolved EELS
    • Poseidon liquid cell holder for in-situ electrochemical experiments
    • Ceta camera: 4096x4096 pixels
    • HAADF, BF, DF, and Differential Phase Contrast detectors for STEM
  • Helios Dual-Beam FIB

    Dual-beam FIB with EDS, EBSD, STEM and Cryo holder

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    Location: Wilsdorf B001

    The dual-beam Helios UC G4 from Thermo Fisher Scientific is used for site-specific modifications of samples using the Ga ion-beam unit. Ion milling can be combined with carbon and platinum deposition. Sample cross sections and thin slices for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) are prepared with this Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) can be combined ion milling to obtain 3-dimensional data. The Helios offers Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) for compositional analysis and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) for texture measurements.

    FIB-SEM Technique Summary:

     
    • SEM and Compositional Analysis of Metals, Glasses, Semiconductors, Ceramics, Polymers, Geologic Materials, etc.
    • High vacuum imaging and sample processing: <0.07 mTorr
    • Quantitative Elemental Analysis and Mapping of Materials with EDS
    • EDS Elemental Sensitivity:> 0.1 wt.% (weight percentage) for Z > 5
    • Mapping of grain orientations, texture and phase analysis with the EBSD system
    • Multiple detectors for Secondary Electron Imaging (SEI) and Backscattered Electron Imaging (BEI)
    • Detector for Scanning TEM (STEM)
    • Montage imaging of large samples
    • Focused Ion Beam (FIB) gun with gallium source
    • Deposition systems for electron beam and ion beam deposition of carbon and platinum
    • Lift-out system for preparation of TEM samples

     

    FIB-SEM Features:

     

    • High resolution Schottky field emission electron source
    • Monochromator for Ultra-High Resolution SEM
    • Everhart-Thornley Detector, Through Lens Detector, Ion-Conversion and Electron Detector
    • Retractable Backscatter Detector, Retractable STEM detector, In-Column Detector, Mirror Detector
    • Field-free mode for conventional SEM imaging
    • Immersion mode for high-resolution SEM of non-magnetic samples
    • High vacuum imaging with beam deceleration up to 4 kV: Landing energy: 150 V to 30 kV
    • Imaging resolution in high vacuum mode at 30 kV: 0.8 nm (STEM), 1.0 nm (SE), 2.5 nm (BSE)
    • Oxford Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with 100 mm window for EDS
    • Oxford EBSD system for grain orientation mapping
    • Oxford Aztec software for EDS and EBSD
    • Software for 3D slice and view SEM imaging including software for 3D EDS and 3D EBSD
    • Ga ion energies from 500 V to 30 kV
    • I-spy SEM imaging during Ga processing
    • Cryo stage capable to reach -140ºC
    • Easy Lift Out (ELO) for TEM sample preparation
    • Load lock for fast sample exchange

     

  • FEI Quanta 650 Field-Emission SEM

    FESEM with EDS, EBSD, STEM and LV-ESEM

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    Location: Wilsdorf B003

    The Schottky Field Emission SEM microscope is capable of imaging and microanalysis on all specimens, with or without preparation. Characterization of both traditional samples from metals, fractures and polished sections, to non-conductive soft materials. Attachments for elemental analysis with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and for grain orientation mapping with an Electron Back-Scatter Detector (EBSD).  

    SEM Technique Summary:

     
    • SEM and Compositional Analysis of Metals, Glasses, Semiconductors, Ceramics, Polymers, Geologic Materials, Catalysts, Pharmaceuticals, etc.
    • High vacuum imaging: <0.25 mTorr
    • Low-vacuum imaging: 0.25 mTorr to 1.5 Torr
    • Environmental SEM (ESEM): 1.5 Torr to 6 Torr
    • Secondary Electron (SE) imaging for topographic contrast
    • Back-Scattered Electron (BSE) imaging for chemical contrast
    • Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) option for imaging of thin samples
    • Quantitative Elemental Analysis and Mapping of Materials with EDS
    • EDS Elemental Sensitivity:> 0.1 wt.% (weight percentage) for Z > 5 (B)
    • Mapping of grain orientations, texture and phase analysis with the EBSD system
    • Montage imaging of large samples
    • Sample size up to 4 x 15 x 15 cm³ ( H x W x D)

     

    Quanta 650 Features:

     
    • High resolution Schottky field emission
    • SEM column optimized for high brightness/high current
    • High vacuum imaging with beam deceleration up to 4 kV: Landing energy: 200 V to 30 kV
    • Imaging resolution in high vacuum mode at 30 kV: 0.8 nm (STEM), 1.0 nm (SE), 2.5 nm (BSE)
    • Wet STEM stage for viewing TEM samples/ ESEM samples
    • 3 nm SE resolution at 1 kV in high vacuum mode and at 3 kV in low-vacuum mode
    • Imaging resolution in low vacuum mode at 30 kV: 1.4 nm (SE), 2.5 nm (BSE)
    • Oxford Silicon drift detector (SDD) with 150 mm window for EDS
    • Oxford EBSD system for grain orientation mapping
    • Oxford Aztec software for EDS and EBSD
    • Maximum horizontal field width: 5 mm at analytical working distance of 10 mm; 18.8 mm at 65 mm WD
    • Probe current: ≤ 200 nA, continuously adjustable
    • Magnification: 6 to 1000000x
     

    Electron Beam Size Calibration Graphs:

     

    EDS available with Spot Size 5, 6, and 7

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  • FEI Quanta LV200 SEM

    Quanta LV200 SEM with EDS and Cathodoluminesence

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    Location: MSB 139

    The SEM microscope is capable of imaging and microanalysis on all specimens, with or without preparation. Characterization of fractures and polished sections from metals, semiconductors, and ceramics. Attachments for elemental analysis with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) and for spatially resolved band-structure determination with Cathodoluminescence (CL).  

    SEM Technique Summary:

     
    • SEM and Compositional Analysis of Metals, Glasses, Semiconductors, Ceramics, Polymers, Geologic Materials, Catalysts, Pharmaceuticals, etc.
    • High vacuum imaging: <0.25 mTorr
    • Low-vacuum imaging: 0.25 mTorr to 1.5 Torr
    • Environmental SEM (ESEM): 1.5 Torr to 6 Torr
    • Quantitative Elemental Analysis and Mapping of Materials with EDS
    • EDS with Oxford 50 mm Silicon drift detector (SDD) sensitive down to boron
    • EDS Elemental Sensitivity:> 0.1 wt.% (weight percentage) for Z > 5
    • Sample size up to 4 x 10 x 10 cm³ ( H x W x D)

     

    Quanta LV200 Features:

     
    • Tungsten source for electrons
    • Accelerating voltage: 200 V to 30 kV
    • 3.0 nm imaging resolution at 30 kV and 10 nm resolution at 3 kV
    • Secondary electron imaging (SEI) for topographic contrast
    • Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) for chemical contrast
    • High vacuum, low vacuum and Environmental SEM (ESEM) capability
    • 25 mm stage travel in both the x and y directions
    • Gatan Cathodoluminescence (CL) detector for band gap measurements