Wireless, Wearable or Implantable Sensors
—and Pain Management
A Novel Analgesic Device for Pain Management
Pain management is an area of high national importance, as adequately managed postoperative pain not only improves patient satisfaction and quality of life, but it helps with earlier mobilization after procedures, shortens hospital stays and reduces costs. Unfortunately, the widespread use of opioid-based drugs for treatment of acute or chronic pain associated with injuries and surgeries has led to a staggering rise in opioid abuse and opioid-related deaths.
This partnership between the UVA Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering will develop and test high-tech drug delivery patches that can be applied to the skin to deliver medications locally at the site of pain rather than systemically, reducing the potential for side effects and addiction. This work builds on expertise at UVA in designing ultra-thin, flexible sensors and circuits that can be applied directly to the skin.
—and Respiratory Monitoring
Airflow-powered Implantables for Batteryless Monitoring of Respiratory Health
One of the biggest challenges of treating patients with asthma is in identifying an exacerbation before an Emergency Department visit or hospitalization is required. About 5% of asthmatic patients have frequent and severe exacerbations, which feel like sudden chest tightness and sometimes lead to respiratory arrest. Most early detection mechanisms require supervised monitoring in a controlled setting or with bulky instruments. This project proposes to explore the feasibility of an implanted sensor to internally monitor airflow in asthmatics.
The collaborators from UVA’s Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and UVA’s Division of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology will explore the mechanical, electrical and clinical questions around an implanted sensor that would both sense airflow in the trachea (the large airway that connects the lungs to the mouth and nose) and harvest energy from that airflow so that no batteries are required.
Quantitative Analysis of Breathing Motion Signals for High-impact Respiratory Monitoring
Shrirang Gadrey, Asst. Prof, Medicine – Geriatrics & Palliative Care (SOM), Ronald Williams, Assoc. Prof, Electrical and Computer Engineering (SEAS), Younghoon Kwon, Asst. Prof, Medicine – Cardiovascular (SOM)
Respiratory failure commonly complicates hospitalizations because many types of illnesses can affect breathing directly or indirectly. Once respiratory failure is severe enough to require a ventilator, hospital stays are longer and outcomes are poor. Therefore, early detection and prompt treatment of respiratory failure could benefit many patients. This team from the Department of Hospital Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering are employing an array of motion sensors on the torso of hospitalized patients to detect increased work of breathing as an early indicator of worsening respiratory status. Ultimately, they aim to use motion-based metrics along with existing metrics (blood oxygen levels and respiratory rate) to build a predictive model that can detect problems and trigger treatments earlier than current models and improve patient outcomes.
—and Telemedicine for Treatment Adherence
Adherence to Medical Treatments for Telemedicine Patients
Many of the most important aspects of medical care occur at home. Correctly diagnosing an illness only results in effective treatment if patients are able to take their medicines at the right times, perform their exercises, and get advice and support when they need it. The UVA Center for Telehealth has long been a leader in helping patients connect with medical experts regardless of geographic barriers, and in particular, for those facing serious health disparities. Now, new technologies promise to extend that support to patients at home, every day.
Through the use of a smart watch and iPad in the home, researchers from the UVA Department of Computer Science, Department of Neurology and UVA Center for Telehealth will study how deployment of wearable sensors can be used to assess activities of daily living for stroke patients, track and improve exercise and medication adherence, and otherwise support recovery at home.
—and Diagnosing Impaired Olfaction
Developing Compliant, Elastic Sensors for Spatial Mapping of Odor-evoked Response Potentials at Human Olfactory Epithelium
Jose Mattos, Assist. Prof, Otolaryngology (SOM), Liheng Cai, Asst. Prof, Materials Science & Chemical Engineering (SEAS)
The human sense of smell, or olfaction, is one of our five critical senses, and yet 13.5% of the US population has impaired olfaction. Particularly among the elderly, dysfunctional sense of smell can lead to lower food intake, safety risks and decrease in personal hygiene. Affected individuals exhibit double to triple the magnitude of depressive symptoms, and are three times more likely to die within five years than those with a normal sense of smell. A research partnership between the UVA Department of Otolaryngology and Department of Materials Science & Chemical Engineering aims to develop better, more objective techniques for diagnosing and understanding impaired olfaction, using small, elastic sensors to directly measure odor-evoked nerve activity.