Empyrean X-Ray Diffractometer

Structure Determination for Polycrystalline Substances

Empyrean Multipurpose X-Ray Diffractometer


Location: Jesser Hall room 108

The Empyrean diffractometer from Malvern-Panalytical performs a variety of X-ray diffraction measurements on any type of polycrystalline material including inorganic, organometallic and organic substances. It can be easily configured by each user with the optimal combination of optics, detector and sample stage for their experiment with reproducible alignment every time.


XRD Technique Summary:

  • Non-destructive analysis of any polycrystalline material including powders, pressed pellets, fibers, thin films and bulk materials
  • Determine the 3-D structure of any crystal phase at the atomic or molecular level
  • Determine texture, stress and other properties that influence the crystal structure
  • Compare your material to hundreds of thousands of known materials in published databases
  • Easily switch configurations between Bragg-Bretano divergent beam, pseudo-parallel beam, transmission, and triple-axis techniques
  • Run scans in manual mode or create programs for your measurements

XRD Applications:

  • X-ray Powder Diffractometry (XPRD)
  • Transmission Geometry XPRD
  • Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffractometry (GIXRD)
  • X-ray Reflectometry (XRR)
  • Texture (Pole Figure)
  • Residual Stress (side inclination or iso-inclination)
  • Rocking Curves
  • Reciprocal Space Mapping
  • 2-D XRPD
  • Microdiffraction
  • In-plane GIXRD

XRD Features:

  • Source: X‐ray tube with line-focus Cu anode (1.54 Å wavelength) with customizable beam size from less than 0.5 mm to several cm in length and width
  • Detectors: Prop detector for point (0-D) data collection and GaliPIX3D detector for line (1-D) and area (2-D) data collections
  • Multiple modes for GaliPIX3D detector
    • Scanning line mode (1-D) - maximum active length 7.1763° 2-theta (501 pixels)
    • Static line mode (1-D) - maximum active length 7.1669° 2-theta (501 pixels)
    • Frame-based mode (1-D) - maximum active length 6.8898° 2-theta (481 pixels) equatorial by 5.7632° 2-theta (465 pixels) axial
    • Scanning area mode (2-D) - maxiumum active length  7.1763° 2-theta (501 pixels) by 5.5158° 2-theta (445 pixels)
    • Static area mode (2-D) - maximum active length 7.1669° 2-theta (501 pixels) by 5.5158° 2-theta (445 pixels)
    • Flat field mode (2-D) - maximum active length 7.1763° 2-theta (501 pixels) by 5.7632° 2-theta (465 pixels)
  • Four sample stages available
    • Reflection-Transmission Spinner
    • 3-Axes cradle with auto chi, phi and Z, three interchangeable platforms (static, leveling, and manual XY translation) and five different leg lengths
    • Flat sample bracket
    • Anton Paar HTK1200N oven
  • Incident beam PreFIX modules: Bragg-Bretano HD (BBHD), 2xGe(220) Hybrid Monochromator, and Fixed Divergence Slit (FDS)
  • Diffracted beam PreFIX modules: Fixed Anti-Scatter Slit (FASS), 0.18° Parallel Plate Collimator (PPC), and 2xGe(220) Triple-Axis Analyzer
  • Incident beam accessories: Programmable Attenuator, Soller slits (0.02 and 0.04 rad), set of divergence and incident beam anti-scatter (IBASS) slits, set of masks, and set of microbeam masks and collimators
  • Diffracted beam accessories: Monochromator, beta filter (Ni), and Soller slits (0.02 and 0.04 rad)
  • Other accessories: Beam knife, and fluorescent screens for visualizing X-ray beam
  • Oven stage allows in-situ measurements from room temperature up to 1200 C, under ambient atmosphere, vacuum or inert/reactive gases with or without sample oscillation
  • Steel sample holders for R/T spinner are available in a variety of sizes
    • For powder: 27 mm diameter x 2.4 mm deep, and 16 mm diameter x 2.4 mm deep for front- and/or back-loading
    • For materials of non-standard size and shape: maximum 45 mm diameter x maximum 6.5 mm deep
    • For circular solid samples: 30-32.3 mm diameter x maximum 6 mm deep
    • For transmission mode measurements: Holder ring (40 mm diameter x 6 mm deep) with disposable Kapton foil and polyoxymethylene inserts
  • Alumina sample holders for HTK1200 N oven are 16 mm in diameter and have depths of either 0.8 mm, 0.4 mm or flat
  • Zero-background sample holders for small amounts of material
  • Manual powder press for back-loading samples
  • Software includes Data Collector, Data Viewer, HighScore Plus, Epitaxy, Stress, and an Excel-based "beam size guidance calculator" for determining X-ray beam size
  • Access to PDF4+ database and CSD database on separate data processing computer
  • Various user manuals in hard-copy and electronic formats



Empyrean XRD Instrument Usage: $39/hr

Empyrean XRD Operator Costs:  $55/hr




Empyrean XRD Instrument Usage (Operator Costs Included): $110/hr





Empyrean XRD Instrument Usage (Operator Costs Included): $250/hr


.*Rates are for reference only. See R. White for current instrument costs.