Empyrean X-Ray Diffractometer

Structure Determination for Polycrystalline Substances

Empyrean Multipurpose X-Ray Diffractometer


Location: Jesser Hall room 108

The Empyrean diffractometer from Malvern-Panalytical performs a variety of X-ray diffraction measurements on any type of polycrystalline material including inorganic, organometallic and organic substances. It can be easily configured by each user with the optimal combination of optics, detector and sample stage for their experiment with reproducible alignment every time.


XRD Applications:

  • Bragg-Brentano (para-focusing) and parallel beam geometry
  • X-ray Powder Diffractometry (XPRD)
  • Transmission Geometry XPRD
  • Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffractometry (GIXRD)
  • X-ray Reflectometry (XRR)
  • Texture (Pole Figure)
  • Residual Stress (side inclination or iso-inclination)
  • Rocking Curves
  • Reciprocal Space Mapping
  • 2-D XRPD
  • Microdiffraction

XRD Features:

  • Source: Water-cooled sealed X‐ray tube operating at 45 keV and 40 mA
    • Cu anode (1.54 Å wavelength) with line- and point-focus windows
  • Detectors: Two interchangeable detectors
    • Prop detector for point (0-D) data collection
    • GaliPIX3D detector for line (1-D) and area (2-D) data collections
    • Multiple modes for GaliPIX3D detector
      • Scanning line mode (1-D) - maximum active length 7.1763° 2-theta (501 pixels)
      • Static line mode (1-D) - maximum active length 7.1669° 2-theta (501 pixels)
      • Frame-based mode (1-D) - maximum active length 6.8898° 2-theta (481 pixels) equatorial by 5.7632° 2-theta (465 pixels) axial
      • Scanning area mode (2-D) - maxiumum active length  7.1763° 2-theta (501 pixels) by 5.5158° 2-theta (445 pixels)
      • Static area mode (2-D) - maximum active length 7.1669° 2-theta (501 pixels) by 5.5158° 2-theta (445 pixels)
      • Flat field mode (2-D) - maximum active length 7.1763° 2-theta (501 pixels) by 5.7632° 2-theta (465 pixels)
  • Sample stages: 5 interchangeable sample stages to accommodate all types of samples
    • Reflection-Transmission Spinner
    • 3-Axes cradle with auto chi, phi and Z, three interchangeable platforms (static, leveling, and manual XY translation) and five different leg lengths
    • Flat sample bracket
    • Anton Paar HTK1200N oven for measurements between 25 - 1200 °C under ambient atmosphere, inert/reactive gas or partial vacuum
    • Capillary spinner stage for transmission measurements of small quantities of powder
    • Alignment camera for manual sample centering
    • Beam knife for reducing air-scatter
    • Gauge for checking sample height
  • Customizable Optics for the incident and diffracted beam
    • Incident bream PreFIX modules: Bragg-Bretano HD (BBHD), 2xGe(220) Hybrid Monochromator, and Fixed Divergence Slit (FDS)
    • Diffracted beam PreFIX modules: Fixed Anti-Scatter Slit (FASS), 0.18° Parallel Plate Collimator (PPC), and 2xGe(220) Triple-Axis Analyzer
    • Programmable Attenuator
    • Soller slits (0.02 and 0.04 rad)
    • Divergence and incident beam anti-scatter (IBASS) slits of 1/32, 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2 and 4° openings
    • Two sets of masks (2, 4, 10, 10 mm for BBHD; 5, 10, 15, 20 mm for FDS)
    • Set of microbeam masks and collimators (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm)
  • Sample holders
    • For powder: 27 mm diameter x 2.4 mm deep, and 16 mm diameter x 2.4 mm deep for front- and/or back-loading
    • For materials of non-standard size and shape: maximum 45 mm diameter x maximum 6.5 mm deep
    • For circular solid samples: 30-32.3 mm diameter x maximum 6 mm deep
    • For transmission mode measurements: Holder ring (40 mm diameter x 6 mm deep) with disposable Kapton foil and polyoxymethylene inserts
    • Alumina sample holders for HTK1200 N oven are 16 mm in diameter and have depths of either 0.8 mm, 0.4 mm or flat
    • Zero-background sample holders for small amounts of material
    • Manual powder press for back-loading samples
  • Software
    • Data Collector for instrument control and data collection
    • Data Viewer
    • HighScore Plus
    • Epitaxy
    • Stress
    • XRD2D
    • Excel-based "beam size guidance calculator" for determining X-ray beam size based on optics selection
    • Crystallography Open Database available on instrument computer
    • Access to PDF4+ database and CSD database on separate data processing computer
  • Various user manuals in hard-copy and electronic formats



Empyrean XRD Instrument Usage: $39/hr

Empyrean XRD Operator Costs:  $60/hr




Empyrean XRD Instrument Usage (Operator Costs Included): $125/hr




Empyrean XRD Instrument Usage (Operator Costs Included): $250/hr


.*Rates are for reference only. See R. White for current instrument costs.